Binocular vision is a mode of vision in which both eyes are used simultaneously. The word binocular comes from Latin: bini for "double" and oculus for "eyes". Seeing with two eyes confers at least four advantages over
A human being whose vision of colors is considered normal is able to perceive 15000 shades. One of the least known aspects of ophthalmology is the study of impaired color vision called "dyschromatopsia". Color blindness is the
etinography is a sophisticated means for identifying people by the pattern of blood vessels on the retina (the innermost coat of the back part of the eye). It requires the use of a special scanner about the size of a shoe-box that can map the unique pattern of blood vessels on the retina. The pattern is so complex that even identical
Tonometry is the clinical measure of intraocular pressure (IOP), it is an essential screening act that must be performed on consultants. Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of blindness in developed countries. In France, it affects more than 800,000 people. This disease does not cause pain or loss of visual acuity at first so it is difficult to detect early enough. It is therefore important to control the IOP which by its increase will cause the other known problems such as the reduction of the visual field and the optic nerve involvement which are the most important.
The normal (monocular) human visual field extends to approximately 60 degrees nasally (toward the nose, or inward) from the vertical meridian in each eye, to 107 degrees temporally (away from the nose, or outwards) from the vertical meridian, and approximately 70 degrees above and 80 below the horizontal meridian.The binocular visual field
Urinalysis can reveal diseases that have gone unnoticed because they do not produce striking signs or symptoms. Examples include diabetes mellitus, various forms of glomerulonephritis, and chronic urinary tract infections.The most cost-effective device used to screen urine is a paper or plastic dipstick. This microchemistry system has
A blood test is a laboratory analysis performed on a blood sample that is usually extracted from a vein in the arm using a hypodermic needle, or via fingerprick. Multiple tests for specific blood components, such as a glucose test or a cholesterol test, are often grouped together into one test panel called a blood panel or blood work.
Spirometry is a simple, painless and very reliable technique to measure lung function or lung capacity and then graphically depict it. Through this test, a doctor can establish with certainty whether someone is suffering from obstructive pulmonary disease, and one can also monitor the evolution of the disease.
The diagnosis of conductive hearing loss is usually based on audiological methods and radiology. The aim of our study was to show that there is a useful additive method to clarify the findings of diseases with conductive hearing loss. Patients (151 ears) with conductive hearing loss were examined using several methods:
Determining the type and cause of your hearing loss can be like a putting together a puzzle, and the many tests that make up a thorough hearing evaluation are like pieces to that puzzle. Often used to assess the function of the middle ear, tympanometry is one test that can determine whether your hearing loss can be helped by
What is an audiogram? The audiogram is a graph which gives a detailed description of your hearing ability and which can be described as a picture of your sense of hearing. A hearing test performed by a hearing health care professional comprises a number of tests which can help to determine whether or not a patient is suffering from
The electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) is a diagnostic tool that is routinely used to assess the electrical and muscular functions of the heart. While it is a relatively simple test to perform, the interpretation of the ECG tracing requires significant amounts of training. Numerous textbooks are devoted to the subject.